An introduction to the history and the culture of australia

Before independence, it was known as Banda Oriental del Uruguay.

An introduction to the history and the culture of australia

First came the influx of the strangers who carried with them diseases, which decimated the immediate population of the Sydney tribes. It is estimated that overAboriginal people inhabited the island continent in Living primarily along the foreshores of the harbour, they fished and hunted in the waters and hinterlands of the area, and harvested food from the surrounding bush.

Self-sufficient and harmonious, they had no need to travel far from their lands, since the resources about them were so abundant, and trade with other tribal groups was well established.

Moving throughout their An introduction to the history and the culture of australia in accordance with the seasons, people only needed to spend about hours per day working to ensure their survival.

With such a large amount of leisure time available, they developed a rich and complex ritual life — language, customs, spirituality and the law — the heart of which was connection to the land.

Cost of Living 1998

European Discovery and Arrival The arrival of Lt James Cook in marked the beginning of the end for this ancient way of life. Either way, it was to be taken. His failure to even attempt to gain the consent of the natives began the legal fiction that Australia was waste and unoccupied.

Cook was followed soon enough by the arrival of the First Fleet, in January ofunder the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, whose mission was to establish a penal colony and take control of Terra Australia for settlement.

This appearance whetted curiosity to its utmost, but as prudence forbade a few people to venture wantonly among so great a number, and a party of only six men was observed on the north shore, the governor immediately proceeded to land on that side in order to take possession of this new territory and bring about an intercourse between its new and old masters.

Watkin Tench, January The first act of land ownership by Europeans came within four days of arrival when a group of men from the HMS Sirius went ashore to clear land to gain access to fresh water.

Aboriginal Life Through European Eyes The early Europeans took a dim view of the Aboriginal way of life when first they encountered it. This excerpt is taken from the diary of Watkin Tench, an officer in the First Fleet: It does not appear that these poor creatures have any fixed Habitation; sometimes sleeping in a Cavern of Rock, which they make as warm as a Oven by lighting a Fire in the middle of it, they will take up their abode here, for one Night perhaps, then in another the next Night.

At other times and we believe mostly in Summer they take up their lodgings for a Day or two in a Miserable Wigwam, which they made from Bark of a Tree. There are dispersed about the woods near the water, 2, 3, 4 together; some Oyster, Cockle and Muscle sic Shells lie about the Entrance of them, but not in any Quantity to indicate they make these huts their constant Habitation.

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We met with some that seemed entirely deserted indeed it seems pretty evident that their Habitation, whether Caverns or Wigwams, are common to all, and Alternatively inhabited by different Tribes.

Kinship with the Land For Aboriginal people and, in this instance, the clans living on the northern shores of Sydney, nothing could have been further from the truth. What the early colonists never understood, and perhaps what many Australians are only now beginning to grasp, was that the Aboriginal lifestyle was based on total kinship with the natural environment.

Wisdom and skills obtained over the millennia enabled them to use their environment to the maximum. For the Aboriginal people, acts such as killing animals for food or building a shelter were steeped in ritual and spirituality, and carried out in perfect balance with their surroundings.

We know our land was given to us by Baiami, we have a sacred duty to protect that land, we have a sacred duty to protect all the animals that we have an affiliation with through our totem system …1 Jenny Munro, Wiradjuri nation Food was abundant, as was fresh water and shelter.

Everything needed for a fruitful, healthy life was readily available.

An introduction to the history and the culture of australia

It was not to remain so. The British arrival brought armed conflict and a lack of understanding, which heralded the demise of the northern Sydney clans, along with the other peoples of the Sydney basin — the Dharawal to the south and the Dharug to the west.

Food shortages soon became a problem. The large white population depleted the fish by netting huge catches, reduced the kangaroo population with unsustainable hunting, cleared the land, and polluted the water.

As a result, the Aboriginal people throughout the Sydney Basin were soon close to starvation. Disease and Devastation Disease struck a fatal and extensive blow to the Aboriginal people, who until that point had been isolated for thousands of years from the diseases that had raged through Europe and Asia.

They had no resistance to the deadly viruses carried by the sailors and convicts such as smallpox, syphilis and influenza. In less than a year, over half the indigenous population living in the Sydney Basin had died from smallpox. The region, once alive with a vibrant mix of Aboriginal clans, now fell silent.

Every boat that went down the harbour found them lying dead on the beaches and in the caverns of the rocks… They were generally found with the remains of a small fire on each side of them and some water left within their reach. Lieutenant Fowell, The colonists had destroyed within six months a way of life that had outlasted British history by tens of thousands of years, and the people soon realised that the trespassers were committed to nothing less than total occupation of the land.

To most settlers, the Aboriginal people were considered akin to kangaroos, dingoes and emus, strange fauna to be eradicated to make way for the development of farming and grazing. I have myself heard a man, educated, and a large proprietor of sheep and cattle, maintain that there was no more harm in shooting a native, than in shooting a wild dog.

I have heard it maintained by others that it is the course of Providence, that blacks should disappear before the white, and the sooner the process was carried out the better, for all parties.

The Sacred World

I fear such opinions prevail to a great extent. Very recently in the presence of two clergymen, a man of education narrated, as a good thing, that he had been one of a party who had pursued the blacks, in consequence of cattle being rushed by them, and that he was sure that they shot upwards of a hundred.Share our Pride is designed to take you on an awareness-raising journey, answering more than the questions above.

Australia: Introduction Australia is a country in Oceania bordering the Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean.

An introduction to the history and the culture of australia

Australia is comprised of mainland Australia, the island of Tasmania, and several small islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Used for information and research by students and educational institutions worldwide, the Indigenous Australia has quickly established itself as a valuable resource on Aboriginal art, history and culture in Australia.

Aboriginal Culture

The history of Australia is the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies.

Aboriginal Australians arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40, and 70, years ago. The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST).

health and welfare services in Australia. For much of . The history wars in Australia are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the British colonisation of Australia and development of contemporary Australian society (particularly with regard to the impact on Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders)..

The Australian debate often concerns the extent to which the history of European colonisation post and.

Australia — History and Culture