In other posts, I have provided a quick video introduction to the topic, and have discussed the ideas behind discourse theorythe main questions that students and researchers will likely ask as they set up their discourse analysis projectand the things that are worth keeping in mind when working with East Asian language sources. In this post, I offer a handy set of tools for doing a text-based, qualitative discourse analysis. You can go through the whole list of work-steps and tick each item off in turn, which is a good way to practice these methods.
It is science, though many times confused as being the same thing. I'll prove my point. You know that I could never have been inside of your mysterious building out there, and I imagine you can be sure no one has told me its secrets.
Yet I'll bet that I can describe fairly accurately what is in there—not from seeing the machinery, but from knowing what must be done to oil in order to get the products you need. You want to hear? Your crude oil runs into a tank of some kind, and you pipe it from there to a retortsome big vessel that you can seal airtight.
Once it is closed, you light a fire under the thing and try to get all the oil to an even temperature. A gas rises from the oil and you take it off through a pipe and run it through a condenserprobably more pipe with water running over it.
Only my family have seen, no others—I'll swear to that! I told you that we have been doing this stuff for years in my country. I'm not out to steal your secrets.
In fact, they are pretty small potatoes where I come from, where every farmer has a still for cooking up his own mash and saving on taxes. I'll bet I can even put in some improvements for you, sight unseen.
How do you monitor the temperature on your cooking brew? Do you have thermometers? I can see where your bootleg joy-juice is going to take a big jump in quality, if you have anyone here who can do some simple glass-blowing.
Though it might be easier to rig up a coiled bi-metallic strip. You're trying to boil off your various fractions, and unless you keep an even and controlled temperature you are going to have a mixed brew. The thing you want for your engines are the most volatile fractions, the liquids that boil off first, like gasoline and benzene.
After that you raise the temperature and collect kerosene for your lamps, and so forth right on down the line until you have a nice mass of tar left to pave your roads with. How does that sound to you?
But I am not interested in your thermometer nor in improving our water-of-power. It has been good enough for my family for generations and it is good enough for me. Stripping away the 'shrines' and 'sacred powers,' I would say that you go into the engine room to do a piece of work with very little praying involved.
There could be a number of ways of moving those vehiclesbut let's think of the simplest. This is top of the head now, so no penalties if I miss any of the fine points. Internal combustion is out. I doubt if you have the technology to handle it, plus the fact there was a lot of do about the water tank and it took you almost an hour to get under way.
That sounds as if you were getting up a head of steam —The safety valve!
I forgot about that. You go in, lock the door, of course, then open a couple of valves until the fuel drips into the firebox, then you light it. Maybe you have a pressure gaugeor maybe you just wait until the safety valve pops to tell you if you have a head of steam.
Which can be dangerous, since a sticking valve could blow the whole works right over the mountain. Once you have the steam, you crack a valve to let it into the cylinders and get the thing moving.
After that you just enjoy the trip, of course making sure that the water is feeding to your boiler all right, that your pressure stays up, your fire is hot enough, all your bearings are lubricated, and the rest…" "Do you know what you have done?
I don't know if you are right or not; I have never seen the inside of one of the Appsalan devil-boxes.
You know more about their—what do you call it? I have only spent my life tending them and cursing the people of Appsala who keep the secret from us. But you will reveal it to us! We will build our own engines, and if they want water-of-power they will have to pay dearly for it.
The Appsalans have a monopoly on that. Edipon cursed and fumed under his breath, and led the way to an inner courtyard where stood four immense black boxes painted with death heads, splintered bones, fountains of blood, and cabalistic symbols, all of a sinister appearance.
Oh yes, they let us use their engines, but after running for a few months the cursed things stop and will not go again, then we must bring them back to the city to exchange for a new one, and pay again and again.The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.
FRANK DUFF Founder of the Legion of Mary Frank Duff was born in Dublin, Ireland, on June 7, He entered the Civil Service at the age of Moderation / Criticism / Exposition / Exposés David Aaronovitch.
Catholics try, rather unconvincingly, to show how conferring sainthood is different in principle to the pagan apotheosis (the process that made Claudius, for instance, into a God), but the distinction doesn't quite wash.
. [page v] 9 September, Dear Secretary of State, I have the honour to present the Report of the Committee set up by your predecessor, Mrs Thatcher, in to inquire into the teaching in the schools of reading and the other uses of English.
The essay moves on to discuss social aspects that censorship benefits to a society, such as maintaining the culture of a society and conserving religious values.
Finally, the essay claims that politics has need for censorship as it protects the innocence of members in a society and prevents public outbursts. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin