Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. We just sprawled about exhaustedly, with home-made cigarettes sticking out of our scrubby faces.
Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites.
Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare"We speak from facts not theory".
Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Flavio Biondoan Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology.
Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camdenconducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered. First excavations[ edit ] An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey — was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes.
These excavations began in in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescoshad a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked.
The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington — Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrowsand the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William SmithJames Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites.
A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologistAugustus Pitt Rivers who began excavations on his land in England in the s.
His approach was highly methodical by the standards of the time, and he is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeologist. He arranged his artifacts by type or " typologicallyand within types by date or "chronologically".
This style of arrangement, designed to highlight the evolutionary trends in human artifacts, was of enormous significance for the accurate dating of the objects. His most important methodological innovation was his insistence that all artifacts, not just beautiful or unique ones, be collected and catalogued.
His painstaking recording and study of artifacts, both in Egypt and later in Palestinelaid down many of the ideas behind modern archaeological recording; he remarked that "I believe the true line of research lies in the noting and comparison of the smallest details.
Petrie was the first to scientifically investigate the Great Pyramid in Egypt during the s.1. Introduction. Agriculture is an important sector of Pakistan's economy. This sector directly supports the country's population and accounts for 26 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
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