Henry himself, however, was the son of her second husband, Geoffrey Plantagenet, and inherited from him the three important fiefs of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine. Soon after his birth the English Witan were made to swear fealty to the infant prince as heir to the throne of England, but when Henry I died, inboth Norman and English barons, who greatly disliked Geoffrey Plantagenet, lent their support to the rival claimant, Stephen of Blois. Despite the confusion and civil war which marked the ensuing years, young Henry seems to have been well educated, partly in England, partly abroad.
His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his family his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and such sons as Richard the Lion-Heart and John Lackland ultimately brought about his defeat.
After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in and count of Anjou on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, in Although the claim of his mother, Matilda, daughter of Henry I, to the English crown had been set aside by her cousin, King Stephen, inHenry advanced his fortunes by marrying the beautiful and talented Eleanor, recently divorced from King Louis VII of France, who brought with her hand the lordship of Aquitaine.
Henry invaded England inand King Stephen agreed to accept him as coadjutor and heir. When Stephen died the following year Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming lord of territories stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees. The young king lacked visible majesty. Of stocky build, with freckled face, close-cut tawny hair, and gray eyes, he dressed carelessly and grew to be bulky; but his personality commanded attention and drew men to his service.
He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times the ungovernable temper of a furious animal and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary. Restless, impetuous, always on the move, regardless of the convenience of others, he was at ease with scholars, and his administrative decrees were the work of a cool realist.
In his long reign of 34 years he spent an aggregate of only 14 in England. His career may be considered in three aspects: His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. This is a misnomer, for Henry's sovereignty rested upon various titles, and there was no institutional or legal bond between different regions.
Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne.
During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three daughters gave him political influence in Germany, Castile, and Sicily. With Louis the relationship was ambiguous. Henry had taken Louis's former wife and her rich heritage.
He subsequently acquired the Vexin in Normandy by the premature marriage of his son Henry to Louis's daughter, and during much of his reign he was attempting to outfight or outwit the French king, who, for his part, gave shelter and comfort to Henry's enemy, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury.
The feud with Louis implied friendly relations with Germany, where Henry was helped by his mother's first marriage to the emperor Henry V but hindered by Frederick's maintenance of an antipope, the outcome of a disputed papal election in Though acknowledging Alexander, he continued throughout the Becket controversy to threaten transference of allegiance to Frederick's antipope, thus impeding Alexander's freedom of action.
Early in his reign Henry obtained from Malcolm III of Scotland homage and the restoration of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and later in the reign homage was exacted from William the Lion, Malcolm's brother and successor.
In Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family.
The quarrel with Becket, Henry's trusted and successful chancellorbroke out soon after Becket's election to the archbishopric of Canterbury May ; see Becket, Saint Thomas. It led to a complete severance of relations and to the Archbishop's voluntary exile.Ancestry and early life.
Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 Henry's protector fell ill and his principal advisers were more amenable to negotiating with the English king.
Henry was handed over and escorted to the Breton port of Saint-Malo. He therefore arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry. "Don't YOU know that the life of henry ii and his influence of the english exchequer I can the life of henry ii and his influence of the english exchequer an overview of the privatzation process drag you down.
was born nearly three months after his fathers death an analysis of shakespeares use of character who exhibit supernatural powers in. From his mother, Matilda, he inherited a claim to the English throne, as she was the daughter of Henry I of England (r.
–35). From his father, Geoffrey, he gained the titles of count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, in France. Henry II, King of England, b. ; alphabetnyc.com 6, ; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry Fitz-Empress from the fact that his mother Matilda, daughter of Henry I, was first married to the Emperor Henry V.
Henry himself, however, was the son of her second husband, Geoffrey Plantagenet, and inherited from him the three important fiefs of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine. Henry II was the first of the Plantagenet kings of England, reigning from to He was born in in LeMans, France.
From his mother, Matilda, he inherited a claim to the English throne, as she was the daughter of Henry I of England (r.
–35). HENRY OF ANJOU, HENRY PLANTAGENET, HENRY FITZEMPRESS, OR HENRY CURTMANTLE (SHORT MANTLE) duke of Normandy (from ), count of Anjou (from ), duke of Aquitaine (from ), and king of England (from ), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England.